Western Civilization: Chronology Chart

Part 2: The Ancient Near East-- Chronology

  I  Stone Age 
          2.5 million-10,000  Palaeolithic (Old Stone)
               Homo sapiens, hunting/gathering, language, stone
               tools, fire, magic and religion
          10,000-6000    Mesolithic (Middle Stone)
               transition, climatic change
          6000-3000      Neolithic (New Stone)
               food production, pottery, trade (eg, obsidian),
               villages (Jericho, Jarmo), social specialization,
 II  Bronze Age: cities, writing, the state

     Mesopotamia              Egypt               Palestine
     Classical Sumer          Old Kingdom
       3200-2300                3100-2200
     cuneiform                pyramids
     Gilgamesh                hieroglyphs

     Sumero-Accadian Empire   Middle Kingdom      Patriarchal Age
       2300-2000                2050-1786           2000-1300
     Semites, Sargon                              Abraham, Canaan
     ziggurat                                     Yahweh

     Old Babylonian Empire              
     Hammurabi (1792-1749)

     Mountain Peoples         New Kingdom
       1600-1200                1560-1087
     Hittites, Kassites       Akhnaton

III  Iron Age
                   P e o p l e s   o f   t h e   S e a
     Assyrian Empire                         Classical Age
       750-612                                 1300-587
     Neo Babylonian Empire                   berith, Saul,
       612-539                               David, Solomon
     Nebuchadnezzar (604-562)                Kingdom of Israel
                                             Kindom of Judah

     Persia                                  Exilic, Post Exilic
     Cyrus the Great (559-529)                 587-539-

Part 3: Ancient Greece--Chronology

  I  Bronze Age  3000-1100
          2000-1500  Minoan
          1600-1100  Mycenaeans
          Mycenae, Pylos; wanax, tholos, Cyclopean; Linear B,

 II  Dark Age  1100-750
          Homer, Iliad, Odyssey; writing; Panhellenism, polis
          particularism; basileus, oikos, polis, demos; arete,
          time; Geometric art

III  Archaic Age  750-480
          Athens, Sparta; aristocracy, tyranny, democracy;
          colonization; hoplite phalanx; helots, hektemores,
          Areopagus, archon, ekklesia, ostracism; Solon,
          Peisistratus, Cleisthenes; Archaic art

 IV  Classical Age  480-323
          490-479  Persian Wars
          Marathon, Thermopylae, Salamis, Plataea; Herodotus
          Delian League, Athenian Empire
          431-404 Peloponnesian War
          Pericles, Thucydides
          Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes;
               Classical art, Parthenon; Socrates, Plato,

  V  Hellenistic Age  323-
          Seleucids in Syria
          Antigonids in Macedonia and Greece
          Ptolemies in Egypt; Alexandria, Museum

Part 4: Ancient Rome--Chronology

I.  Regal Period 753-509 BCE (trad.)

    Rex, Senatus, Comitia

    Fasces, lictors:  imperium
II. Early and Middle Republic 509 (trad.)-133 BCE

    Consuls (2):  imperium

    Gauls, Samnites
    Carthage:  Punic Wars 264-146
    Macedon:  Macedonian Wars 212-148

    Plautus, Terence, Cato
III. Late Republic 133-27 BCE

     Proconsuls:  civil wars
     C. Iulius Caesar

     Cicero, Sallust, Catullus

IV.  Principate 27 BCE-284 CE

     C. Iulius Caesar Octavianus
     Imperator Caesar Divi filius Augustus

     Julio-Claudians 27 BCE-68 CE
     Flavians 69-96
     Antonines 98-l92
     Severi l93-235
     "Barracks Emperors"

     Vergil, Horace, Livy, Tacitus

 V.  Dominate 284-641 CE

     Diocletian, Constantine:  Christianity

Part 5: The Middle Ages--Chronology

     I.  Late Antiquity (313-610)
          Constantine (306-337):  Christianity
          Justinian (527-565):  Corpus Iuris Civilis, Church of
           St Sophia

          Vandals, Goths:  Sack of Rome, (4l0)
          Monasticism, Deurbanization
          St Augustine (354-430)

    II.  Early Middle Ages (610-1050)

          Islam:  Muhammad (ca 570-632)
          Western Christianity:    Charlemagne (768-814)
                                   Holy Roman Empire

          Schism between Roman and Eastern Orthodox Churches

   III.  High Middle Ages (1050-1300)

          Agricultural Revolution, Urbanization, Universities
          Feudalism:  manor, serf

          Papal Monarchy
            Investiture Controversy:  Gregory VII (1073-1085) 
            and Henry IV (1056-1106)
            Innocent III (ll98-1216)

          St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274), St Francis of           
                      Assisi (1182-1226)

          Romanesque Style (ca 1000- ca 1200), Gothic Style
             (ca 1150-ca 1500)
               Chartres Cathedral (begun 1194)

   IV.  Late Middle Ages (1300-1500)

          National States:  Plantagenets in England (1154-1399),
            Wars of the Roses (1455-1485), Capetians and Valois
            in France (1285-1589), Marriage of Ferdinand and
            Isabella (1469)
          Holy Roman Empire
          Babylonian Captivity (1305-1378), Great Schism          
          Black Death (1348)       
          Hundred Years' War (1337-1453):  Joan of Arc(1429-31)

     Fall of Constantinople (1453)

Part 6: Renaissance and Reformation-- Chronology

 I. The Renaissance (ca 1350-ca 1555)
     Tudors in England (1485-1603)
     Valois in France (1328-1589)
     Hapsburgs in Holy Roman Empire (1438-1806)
     Renaissance Popes (1447-1521)

     Humanism and Letters: Petrarch (1304-1374), Machiavelli
          (1469-1527),   Erasmus (ca 1467-1536), Jean Bodin
          (1530-96), Shakespeare (1564-1616)

     Renaissance Art: Perspective, Classicism
     Bramante (1444-1514), Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), Raphael
     (1483-1520),   Michelangelo (1475-1564)

     Exploration: Prince Henry the Navigator, Diaz (1487), Vasco
          da Gama (1497- 99), Columbus (1492), Magellan (1519-
          22), conquistadors (Cortes, Pizarro).

II. The Reformation

     Martin Luther (1483-1546): the Indulgence Controversy and
          the Ninety-Five Theses (1517)
     John Calvin (1509-1564): The Institutes of the Christian
          Religion (1559)
     Charles V (1519-64), Francis I (1515-47), Henry VIII (1509-

     Reformation Popes (1534-90): Council of Trent (1545-63)
     St Ignatius of Loyola (1491?-1556): Society of Jesus

     Peace of Augsburg (1555): cuius regio, eius religio
     Religious Wars in France (1562-98): Edict of Nantes
     The Invincible Armada (1588): Elizabeth I (1558-1603)

     Thirty Year's War (1618-48): Peace of Westphalia
     Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor (1619-37); Gustavus
          Adolphus, King of   Sweden (1611-32); Cardinal
          Richelieu (1585-1642), Chief Minister of the      King
          of France

Part 7: Absolutism and Enlightenment-- Chronology

     Peace of Westphalia, 1648

 I  The Age of Absolutism
     Cardinal Richelieu and Louis XIV of France, 1624-1715
     Peter the Great of Russia, 1682-1725
     Elector Frederick William Brandenburg, 1640-88: Junker
     Commonwealth and Protectorate in England, 1649-60: Cromwell,
     Glorious Revolution in England, 1688

     Centralization: L'├ętat, c'est moi; bureaucracies and armies
     Capitalism and Mercantilism: regulated, joint-stock, and
          chartered companies; sugar and slaves
     Intellectual Revolution: Bacon, Descartes, Locke, Newton
     Baroque: Bernini, Borromini, Rubens, Rembrandt
II  The Age of Enlightenment, ca 1700-ca 1790

     Frederick William I and Frederick the Great of Prussia,
     Maria Theresa of Austria, 1740-80
     Catherine the Great of Russia, 1762-96

     American Revolution, 1776
     French Revolution, 1789

     Philosophes: Montesquieu, Voltaire, Diderot, Condorcet
     The Encyclopedia
     Rousseau, Kant

     Classicism: Poussin, Jones, Wren
     Rococo: Watteau, Fragonard, Zimmerman
     Neoclassicism: David, Winkelmann, Ledoux
     Augustans: Swift, Pope
     The novel: Fielding, Austen
     Bach, Handel, Haydn, Mozart

     Economic upswing: corn and potatoes; enclosure; population
     Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations

Part 8: The Age of Revolutions-- Chronology

 I  Political Revolution

     American Revolution, 1775-83
     Armed Neutrality

     French Revolution, 1789-99
          Dissolution of Monarchy, 1789-90
          Interim, 1790-92
               Legislative Assembly
          Second Revolution, 1792-95: First Republic
               National Convention: Robespierre; Reign of Terror,
               Declaration of Pillnitz, 1791
          Directory, 1794-99
               Treaty of Campo Formio, 1797
     Burke, Paine

     Napoleonic Europe, 1799-1815
          Consulate, 1799-1804
          Empire, 1804-1814, 1815
          Continental System, 1806; Treaty of Tilsit, 1807
          Iberian War, 1808-1813
          Russian Campaign, 1812-13
          Congress of Vienna, 1814-15

II  Industrial Revolution

     British Cotton, Coal, Banking
     Steam engine, spinning jenny, cotton gin, blast furnace
     railway, factory system
     Population explosion, urbanisation, industrial proletariat

     Classical Economics: Malthus, Ricardo, Bentham

     Crystal Palace, 1851

Part 9: A Century of Ideas-- Chronology

  I  Liberalism in Britain

     Peterloo Massacre, 1819
     Political Revolution, 1830; Reform Bill, 1832; Repeal of
          Corn Laws, 1846
          Tories--Conservatives;  Whigs--Liberals
     Chartism, 1838-1848
     Reform Bill, 1867:  Disraeli, Gladstone
     Queen Victoria (1837-1901)

 II  Repression in Russia

     Decembrist Revolt, 1825:  Nicholas I (1825-1855)
     Crimean War, 1854-1856
     Alexander II (1855-1881):  reforms and repression
     Alexander III (1881-1894), Nicholas II (1844-1917): 
          reaction and Russification

III  Nationalism in Germany

     Metternich and Austria:  Carlsbad Decrees
     Stein and Prussia:  nationalism, Zollverein
     1848:  Frankfurt Assembly; Panslavism, Magyars
     Unification of Germany, 1848-187l; Bismarck and the German

 IV  Republicanism in France
     Bourbon restoration 1815
     Revolution of 1830:  Louis Philippe (1830-1848)
     Revolution of 1848:  Second Republic; Louis Napoleon (1851-
          1870) and Second Empire

Part 10: Turn of the Century-- Chronology

   I  Prelude to War
     Triple Alliance, 1882:  Bismarck's retirement 1890
     Triple Entente, 1907
     Crises:  Morocco (1905, 1911); Bosnia (1908); Turkey (1908);
             Balkans (1912-13)

  II  WW I
     Assassination of Ferdinand of Austria, 28 June 1914
     Schlieffen Plan:  the Marne
     Deadlock, 1915-16:  trench warfare, the Somme; submarine
     Collapse of Russia, Entry of US, 1917
     Armistice, 11 Nov 1918; Peaces of Paris, 1919-20:  Treaty of
          Wilson, Lloyd George, Clemenceau

 III  Russian Revolution
     Lenin (1870-1924), Stalin (1879-1953), Trotsky (1879-1940)
     Russo-Japanese War, 1904-5
     Russian Revolution, 1905
     Russian Revolution, 1917

  IV  Between the Wars
     Weimar Republic
     League of Nations, 1920-46

     Mussolini's March on Rome, 1922:  Fascism
     Hitler's Beer Hall Putsch, 1923; Chancellor of Germany,
     Rome-Berlin Axis, 1936

     Great Depression, 1929-40
     New Deal 1933-40

     Wittgenstein, Weber, Einstein, Keynes
     Schoenberg, Stravinsky
     Bauhaus, Lost Generation
     (Impressionism, Expressionism), Cubism, Surrealism, Dadaism

Part 11: The Twentieth Century-- Chronology

  I  The Second World War, 1939-45

          Appeasement: Rhineland, 1936; Austria and Czechoslovakia 1938; Poland, 1939
          Battle of Britain, 1940
          Entry of United States: Pearl Harbor, 7 December 1941
          Battle of Stalingrad, 1942-43
          Invasion of Normandy: D-Day, 6 June 1944
          Hiroshima and Nagasaki, August 1945

 II  Post-War Europe

          Yalta Conference, 1945: Stalin, Roosevelt, Churchill
          United Nations, 1945
          Truman Docrine, 1947; Marshall Plan, 1948
          NATO, 1949; Warsaw Pact, 1955
          Berlin Wall, 1961: Khrushchev (1894-1971)
          Common Market, 1958; Comecon, 1949

III  The Third World

          Independence of India, 1947: Gandhi (1869-1948)
          Communism in China, 1949: Mao Zedong (1893-1976)
          African Independence, 1950s-60s
          Korean War, 1950-53; Vietnam War, 1964-73
          Arab-Israeli Wars: 1948-49, 1967, 1973
          Civil Rights Movement, 1960-68: Martin Luther King, Jr
          Vatican II, 1962-65

 IV  The Last Generation

          SALT, 1972
          Invasion of Afghanistan, 1979-88
          Glasnost and Perestroika: Gorbachev (1931- )
          Solidarity in Poland, 1980-
          Revolution in Europe, 1989-90
          Civil War in the Balkans, 1992-

          OPEC, 1973-
          Egypt-Israeli Peace, 1979; Attack on Lebanon, 1982;
               Palestinian Revolt, 1988-
          Iranian Revolution, 1979: Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
               (1902-1989); Iran-Iraq War, 1980-88; Iraq War
          Revolution in El Salvador and Nicaragua, 1979; Invasion
               of Grenada, 1983